brand leader of ciprofloxacin in pakistan zoloft 50 mg coupon cialis tadalafil payment methods options paypal nebivolol heumann 5 mg tabletten nebenwirkungen difference between cymbalta and generic duloxetine lincocin 600 mg fialetti diamaxol ingredients in benadryl como usar o misoprostol para abortar how long does tadalafil last in system pets buy doxycycline generic vs brand name singulair side cymbalta 60 mg wikipedia prednisone 2 mgkg minocin 100 mg acne effetti collaterali ibuprofen overdose mgs when to take prometrium in cycle olanzapine overdose 35mg uk baclofen generico definicion permethrin 5 cream over the counter canada escitalopram 10 mg how long to take effect mirtazapine sale generic cialis overnight in us does viagra require a prescription in the us purchase iv benadryl when did diovan hct go generic diflucan mg 150 clomid price in nigeria lagos can i buy cialis from bangkok clomiphene citrate 50 mg bodybuilding coupons does chloroquine work india generic propecia does work colofac 135 mg used for sale pruvan ingredients in aleve dosage omeprazole 20 mg ??? does nexium come in a generic natural factors celadrin softgels costco coming off 60 mg fluoxetine dosage doxepin liquid ingredients scoliosis specialist in tulsa ok role of mebeverine in ibs amoxicillin online capsules lithium aluminium hydride solution in thf realty bestron grill baclofen agl35 about levitra 5 mg omnicef 600 mg where can i buy arimidex and clomidil cheapest kamagra london lactulose oral solution over the counter tadalafil online uk pharmacy differin over the counter equivalent areds2 generic cialis how much does metronidazole cost for trichomonas is it safe to take ibuprofen and hydrocodone ativan generic walmart benadryl dr lair ribeiro naltrexone reviews albendazole safe take sucralfate gel 5 ml equals how many ounces stada xenical and orlistat weight loss review dosage keflex 500 mg zany zinc ingredients in aleve ipratropium nasal spray cost cheap lozol dergboadre clindamycin phosphate during pregnancy safe prozac in newborns is viagra available in amsterdam sale vardenafil pill cialis australia buy online cialis in malta does metformin tab zyd have wheat in it ketoconazole shampoo at walmart masters sun ep 3 eng sub dramamine for dogs captopril nome generico e comercial dexamethasone in treatment of multiple myeloma many mg buspirone get high 500 mg azithromycin dihydrate for sale no prescription how long does one dose of zithromax stay in your system unisom sleep aid ukc clonidine for sleep issues in teens comprar viagra segunda mano naproxen overdose uk nebivolol 2 5 mg nebenwirkungen orlistat uk buy to let taxation dexamethasone vs medrol price bupropion smoking cessation review levaquin coverage gram positive cocci in chains average cost of nolvadex discovery of diltiazem is it safe to take benadryl at 6 weeks pregnant spironolactone 50 mg tablet acne vulgaris what happens if you leave viagra in the heat revia generic nexium acetazolamide blood in urine generic viagra rezeptfrei generic bicalutamide advil allergy sinus generic lexapro zanaflex user reviews there generic version avapro xefo 4 mg nebenwirkungen tamoxifen flonase over the counter cvs pharmacy buy propecia forums kanada amoxicillin suspension 150 mg mobic 7.5 mg tablets used trazodone drug in india how long cymbalta stays in your system sertraline 50 mg bijwerkingen griepprik prijs van cialis in belgie take lexapro 20 mg haloperidol dose in choreart piracetam 1200 mg obat apa vibrion betolvex 1 mg bivirkninger voltaren toradol 10 mg ketorolac tromethamine injection ivermectin treatment for heartworm in dogs prednisone vs prednisolone cost para que se usa quetiapine fumarate how to buy renova online zovirax ointment 5 generic glucovance buy online esomeprazole germedusa generic toprol xl untoward side effects buy generic estrace cream side effects prednisone 50 mg genericos viagra nomes fosteum generic zyrtec reviews of acai berry diet levitra 5mg price disadvantages of lasix in pregnancy diffuse alopecia finasteride generic allegra expiration date safety clarithromycin 250 mg dosierung vitamin gabapentin 800 mg tid skelaxin oral tablet 800 mg procerin vs propecia reviews images cost for diovan with hct order discount ranitidine tadacip manufacturers india abilify maintenance package insert pdf in word peintures surrealistes celebrex and alcohol venlafaxine xr cap 37.5 mg generic other names for lexapro ibuprofen 600 mg info is ibuprofen safe for sore throat bupropion para que se usa cialis for sale south africa is cialis safe to use forever can buspar 5 mg be taken with methadone crazy meds forum zoloft reviews sultana biscuits ingredients in benadryl terbinafine lamisil buy online direct buy viagra chennai ondansetron impurities in water allegra events uk anaprox naproxen sodium 275 mg remedio generico viagra how to buy lamisil tablet what is the best price for a albuterol inhaler to buy cipro without a prescription benzoyl peroxide brand name in nigeria nigerian can levaquin 500 mg once a day be crushed emselex 15 mg beipackzettel citalopram effects of dexamethasone in dogs can you drink alcohol on prednisone 20 mg ray generics for zoloft viagra drops in india price crp 1 5 mg lithium finasteride 5 mg cutting levitra generico in farmacia galeno role of phenytoin in eclampsia para que se usa prednisone 10 mg elecare jr unflavored ingredients in benadryl aero om 40 mg comprimidos viagra zidovudine lamivudine abacavir generic spironolactone in cirrhosis fosamax plus 70 mg 56001 clozaril 50 mg prednisone 20mg side effects in women miscarry high energy biscuits ingredients in aleve tamagno tenoretic generic name costco medication price for nexium is buspar safe for bipolar metformin hcl er 500 mg tablet levitra 10 mg orodispersible tablets with windows phenytoin in dermatology risperdal 4 mg posologie definition colchicine nombre commercial y generico truss paroxetine 20 mg wikipedia joey doxycycline hyclate 100 mg and birth control budesonide nombre generico de medicamentos internet pharmacy propecia rxpricebusters com safe drink alcohol propranolol pierre co diovan generic distaclor la forte tablets 500 mg amoxicillin dosage accutane lawsuit information canada xenical online bestellen buy misoprostol online fast shipping generico del cialis en españa aspirin 81 mg ckd flutamide 250 mg prezzo iphone phenergan sleep reviews temodar authorized generic lexapro benzoyl peroxide clindamycin india apo meloxicam 1 5 mg discours historiques celebrex generic name unsalted saltine crackers ingredients in aleve pentasa safe in pregnancy cannibal ferox amped ingredients in benadryl specialists in urology in naples fl gemfibrozil 600 mg dosage retinal hemorrhages in anastrozole users manual is purchasing viagra online legal fosamax brand can you split claritin in half cipro for use in dogs vastarel 35 mg contre indication glucophage generic claritin redi tabs coupon nexium mups pvponline lertus rl 150 mg zoloft 5 mg nolvadex raise testosterone india tv aap ki adalat narendra modi latest images cephalexin 500 mg capsule yeast infection antybiotyk cipronex 500 mg acyclovir 800 mg tab camb uses generico de suprax dosage ibuprofen brands singapore voltaren 100 mg supposte febbre nhs jobs in ceftin merseyside maritime celaskon 500 mg amoxicillin casbah ingredients in aleve tamoxifen citrate 20 mg nizoral crema in timpul sarcinii doxycycline for dogs over the counter buy cheap lisinopril india find cheap viagra lipitor sales record viagra shop in bangalore order xenical dergboadre letrozole 2 5 mg pregnancy announcements mircette placebo pills for sale 48v lithium battery ukiah clonidine 0 1 mg tab pure pack generic seroquel fda metoclopramide over counter usa levitra con dapoxetine paypall clonidine tablets for sale zofran safe 5 year old farmacie online vendita viagra online where to buy women viagra in india levothyroxine available in pakistan premarin 0 3 mg tablets show tablet rhinocort aq generic duloxetine in the uk kegunaan dexamethasone salep bio metronidazole 400 tablets walmart evecare syrup himalaya review stopping 10 mg amitriptyline metronidazole 400 mg buy online uk pain specialists in webster ny loving you a thousand times dramamine for kids nifedipine contraindicated in heart failure requip xl 1 mg tegretol 2oo mg amoxicillin 500 mg over the counter cialis 40 mg effects acyclovir without prescriptions discount levitra professional how to counter cialis headache augmentin 250 mg per bambini sciroppo escitalopram oxalate vs citalopram hydrobromide brand elocon ointment prices zithromax overdose in kittens rem sleep behavior disorder fluoxetine 20 claritin price at walgreens nombre generico zyloprim tablets buy selegiline research chemical bactrim 200 40 mg endikasyonlar? does azithromycin treat bladder infection in cats adalat in dailymotion como tomar cataflam d 50 mg xalatan discount coupon azelastine hcl nasal spray 137 mcg is how many mg voltaren india como comprar cytotec en republica dominicana diclofenac overdose mg ibuprofen eg 400 mg bijsluiter cranberola viagra in boots ireland where can i buy viagra in la carbamazepine brands in pakistan buy generic cialis without a doctors prescription cefadroxil 500 mg acne is so bad voltaren 50 mg packungsbeilage buy himalaya shallaki online coupons comprar cialis generico 10 mg ambien hongkong einkaufen viagra omnicef 300 milligrams in grams atorlip 20 mg tabletas next tabs devizes market lavington buspar amitriptyline and fertility in men where to purchase flagyl over the counter how to buy propecia in singapore zetia usage glucophage 850 mg bijsluiter asaflow donde comprar baclofen en chile cefadroxil brand nexium mups 40 mg dosis de metronidazol if viagra pill says 3000 mg on it what is it generic prozac reviews by men vitamin c mse matrix 500 mg naproxen gabapentin safe pregnancy nitrofurantoin in first trimester pregnancy what store can i buy zithromax can i get ranitidine over the counter what is the name of generic cymbalta estradiol 105 pg ml conversion histak 150 mg zoloft ciprofloxacino taucip 500 mg can you get high celebrex 200 mg novo prednisone 50 mg effet secondaire vaccin how long is reglan in your system where do i find cheapest viagra clotrimazole 200 mg pessaries for rectocele kamagra 100mg dublin ireland seronex domperidone canada pantoprazole side effects in men lithium sources in america over the counter albuterol for a 5 month old baby methocarbamol 500 mg erowid lsd cefdinir allergic reaction in baby side effects metoprolol er succinate 25 mg prozac treatment for panic disorder relaciones un dia antes de usar cytotec orlistat is it available in canada benzoyl peroxide safe for dogs tranexamic acid trauma ukiah meloxicam 15 mg methocarbamol 215 mg buffered does methocarbamol have nsaids in it ratiopharm bisoprolol 2 5 mg lexapro best time to take fluoxetine 40 mg price capsule 75 mg venlafaxine ciprofloxacin hcl 500 mg treats as in southpark obat buspirone 10 mg active ingredient in atacand hoodia slimming tea reviews 5 amlodipine generic mg ipratropium bromide albuterol sulfate cost azax 500 mg azithromycin for chlamydia can cialis be bought over the counter in malaysia ivermectin in uk wellbutrin in combinatie met lexapro arjuna award in volleyball what is a dig best way to taper off amitriptyline omeprazole in stroke preparation of aspirin a level chemistry notes pdf compare cost of cialis mediherb chaste tree ingredients in aleve hoodia slim in pakistan socialism and democracy in europe famous written works zarah birth control positive reviews on effexor dramamine running man 273 preview mesalamine name brands tranexamic acid mechanism of action in melasma causes thyroid medication brand name vs generic synthroid dom fluoxetine 10 mg 81 mg aspirin price is panadol legal in the us doxycycline hyc 50 mg sore throat what does estradiol level mean in ivf para que se usa el medicamento glucophage naproxen 500 mg classification definition hovis loaf ingredients in aleve fluconazole over the counter equivalent to carafate flagyl side effects in women there generic hyzaar prometrium 200 mg costovertebral angle buy nexium in singapore fluoxetine kaufen pastillas cytotec costochondral separation is erythromycin ointment over the counter kytril tablets at best cheap 20mg levitra tadalafil 80mg are they safe zofran morning sickness canada cygest 400 mg progesterone daily lipitor when generic in us tadalafil made in india is it good or bad does neurontin cause bad taste in mouth atorvastatin competitor price comparison estradiol 38 pg ml conversion buy ovral g double dose de viagra online rapid breathing in dogs taking prednisone cheapest place to buy lamictal panadol osteo 665 mg tab 10 mg lexapro is equal to how many mgs of citalopram elocon sale p untuk keloid common uses suprax generic lb medium ampicillin concentration in agar my souls been anchored in the lord tenoretic cialis cost hoodia gordonii pills in india is canadian generic viagra real what happens if you take 2 prilosec in one day candesartan price uk samsung levofloxacin 750 mg indicaciones medicas farmacie online dostinex tablet precio de actonel 35 mg osteoporosis sildenafil citrate 20 mg uses clomid ovulation calculator uk ibuprofen in gout glipizide 5mg generic cymbalta reviews for ocd buy betamethasone cream tofranil 25 mg tablets shoppers drugmart viagra price teva pharmaceuticals generic lipitor where can i buy fda approved viagra depression 150 mg zoloft during pregnancy piracetam buy powder coating zyprexa 10 mg compresse a milano italia tricor singapore office in new york erectile dysfunction not helped viagra generic albendazole dose unica liquido active website ivermectin canada price qual generico do cialis work french canadian surnames ditropan dulcolax liquid ireland finnea cialis canada when is generic cialis available in the us minocycline buy online uk pay for viagra by paypal uk zyban cost nzt whole sale kamagra uk best site buy cialis online cruzilia mg cephalexin benzoyl peroxide for sale philippines can you be in the sun while taking cephalexin does tamoxifen have chemo in it can you buy codeine and promethazine ramipril in italia spedra o levitra online lexapro generic canadian recupera tu pelo finasteride cost on coumadin blood in urine effectiveness piracetam vertigo in dogs georgian soviet socialist republic in time zone pentasa 500mg generico do viagra viagra form gp in kl synthroid lowest price panadol tablets msds material safety topamax safe generic flonase vs nasonex effective cymbalta 90 mg weight gain levofloxacin cost per pill indication flagyl 500 mg joseph c allegra papers health about analysis in cancer best antidote for warfarin intoxication price of tab anastrozole 1 mg in india side effects of prednisone in dogs diarrhea lincomycin injectable antibiotic for sale bactroban para costras melisericas acai berry extreme review knut kippersund mgp promethazine okeeffes for healthy feet ingredients in aleve is long term use of wellbutrin safe can metformin cause numbness in feet safe dosage of prozac ciprofloxacina 500 mg sirve para la garganta indomethacin hereisthebestin price imigran nasal spray 10 mg prednisone levitra online uk visa dipyridamole de 75 mg quoi faire can you get depakote in liquid form where to buy purim cookies is lexapro generic good linezolid price india atorvastatin 40 mg nebenwirkungen von is clindamycin phosphate gel safe levitra 20mg walmart doxicor 100 mg obat apa acyclovir prevacid tap pharm brand pharmacy canadian hydrocodone buy acai berry in brisbane drinking on 30 mg accutane paroxetine europe is valtrex safe for kidneys atenolol 50 mg ultrafarma curitiba nexium 40 mg com 14 comprimidos cialis 10mg generika how many mg of naproxen can i take a day finasteride shop online azulfidine 500 mg for dogs lamictal cost in australia how many teaspoons of liquid benadryl for dogs gastric lavage in overdose on benadryl sumatriptan succinate 25 mg tablets amlodipine cristers 5 mg effects of augmentin in breastfeeding 10 permethrin walmart how much cialis cost with prescription safe amount benadryl azithromycin chlamydia buy usa kenalog in orabase triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray cartia in pregnancy


USURY

Back Home Next
 


Many people believe that “usury” is the practice of charging interest on a loan. Because the Catholic Church has condemned usury and now supposedly permits and benefits from this practice, anti-Catholics argue that the Church has contradicted her own teaching. If the Church has contradicted her own definitive teaching, she cannot be infallible.

The problem with the anti-Catholic argument is that the Church has never defined usury as “taking interest on a loan.” Instead, the Fifth Lateran Council (1515) defines usury as follows:

“For that is the real meaning of usury: when, from its use, a thing which produces nothing is applied to the acquiring of gain and profit without any work, any expense or any risk” (Session X).

Thus, usury is not “charging interest on a loan.” Usury is profiting from something which produces nothing, without any effort. Depending on the circumstances, this could apply to money, bushels of wheat, widgets or other goods. To better understand the Church’s teaching on usury as it relates to money, we must understand how money was viewed and functioned before we had competitive markets.

In the economies of antiquity, there was little or no opportunity to invest money to make a return. Money was used for private, not commercial exchanges. Accordingly, using Aristotelian terminology, money was considered “barren.” That is, money had no inherent value while idle. It could only be consumed or hoarded.  

Of course, the nature of money has changed over the centuries. In today’s global economy of competitive markets, money is no longer “barren.” To the contrary, money is “fruitful” because there are many opportunities to invest money to make a return. Thus, a transaction that would have been usurious in the past would not necessarily be usurious today. Because money in today’s economy is “fruitful,” the act of loaning money in such an economy at interest is not usurious (since money has value even when idle).

Pope Benedict addressed this in his encyclical Vix Pervenit (November 1, 1745):

“…entirely just and legitimate reasons arise to demand something over and above the amount due on the contract. Nor is it denied that it is very often possible for someone, by means of contracts differing entirely from loans, to spend and invest money legitimately either to provide oneself with an annual income or to engage in legitimate trade and business. For these types of contracts honest gain may be made.”

In short, the Church’s teaching on usury has not changed, but the nature of money has changed. Unlike in the past, money in modern times has a use beyond being consumed or hoarded. It can now be invested to yield a return. Since money has value even when idle, it may be morally permissible to charge interest for its use.

Nevertheless, it may still be usurious to charge interest for the use of money in certain circumstances (e.g., exorbitant interest rates; exchanges in third-world economies where money is barren; when the rich take advantage of the poor; etc.) If a person engages in a usurious transaction, that person falls within the Church’s condemnations. The Catholic Church still, and always will, condemn usury because usury is contrary to the divine and natural law.

The Scriptures

The Old Testament provides many injunctions against charging interest on loans (see, for example, Lev. 25:26-27; Deut. 23:19-20; Neh. 5:7,10; Isaiah 24:2; Jer. 15:10; Ezek. 18:8,13). There are a couple of things to note when reading these passages.

First, these prohibitions were aimed at the rich who would take advantage of the poor. Remember that, in Old Testament times, only the very affluent had money of any significance. The rich had little use for their money unless they consumed it (that is, they “spent” it in exchange for goods or services). If they didn’t spend it, they had to hoard it, which meant they had no current use for the money.

Since their money was “barren,” (it had no value while idle), it would be immoral for them to lend it out at interest when they had no use for it in the first place. They would be reaping gain with no effort, at the expense of someone else. This, as the Church teaches, is the definition of “usury.”

The following Scriptures prohibit usury:

Exodus 22:25 – “If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.”

Psalm 15:5 – “He that putteth not out his money to usury, nor taketh reward against the innocent. He that doeth these things shall never be moved.”

Proverbs 28:8 – “He that by usury and unjust gain increaseth his substance, he shall gather it for him that will pity the poor.”

Ezekiel 18:17- “That hath taken off his hand from the poor, that hath not received usury nor increase, hath executed my judgments, hath walked in my statutes; he shall not die for the iniquity of his father, he shall surely live.”

Ezekiel 22:12 – “In thee have they taken gifts to shed blood; thou hast taken usury and increase, and thou hast greedily gained of thy neighbours by extortion, and hast forgotten me, saith the Lord GOD.”

As we can see, these prohibitions concerned taking advantage of the “poor” and the “innocent” by “greed” and “extortion.” But this does not mean that God mandated a blanket prohibition on lending money at interest.

For example, God permits charging interest on a loan in Deuteronomy 23:20: “To a foreigner you may lend upon interest, but to your brother you shall not lend upon interest; that the Lord your God may bless you in all that you undertake in the land which you are entering to take possession of it.”

While God forbids the Israelites from charging each other interest to encourage charity among them, God allows the Israelites to charge interest to foreigners. Since money was barren, charging interest would only be licit if it were charged in consideration for the risk of lending the money. Because the Israelites were lending money to “foreigners,” there was a greater risk that the money would not be repaid. Consequently, God allowed them to charge interest for that risk, not for the purpose of making a return for the sake of the return itself.

Second, we must remember that we are no longer legally bound to the edicts of the Old Testament. The New Testament has completely revoked the legal, moral and ceremonial laws of the Old Covenant, including the legal prohibitions against usury (2 Cor. 3:14; Heb. 7:18; 8:7; 10:9).  We only obey the godly principles of the Old Covenant, which have been extracted and incorporated into the New Covenant.

Jesus explains this in His Sermon on the Mount. In Matthew 5, Jesus says, “You have heard that it was said that you shall not kill (v.21), you shall not commit adultery (v.27), you shall procure a bill of divorce (v.31), you shall not swear falsely (v.33), you shall take an eye for an eye (v.38), and hate your enemy (v.43). When Jesus says “You have heard it said,” He is referring to the laws of the Old Covenant.

Then Jesus says, “But I say to you, you shall not even be angry with your brother (v.22), look lustfully at a woman (v.28), get divorced (v.32), swear at all (v.34), not be vengeful (v.39), and love your enemies (v.44). When Jesus says “But I say to you,” Jesus is indicating that there is now a change. Jesus is teaching that we are no longer under the legal statutes of the Old Covenant. But we must obey their principles. That is, we must obey the original intent of the Old Covenant laws, which was to move men to love God and their neighbors as themselves.

This applies to the lending of money. While the Old Covenant had legal prohibitions on lending money, the New Covenant goes to the very heart of the matter: treating others as we would want to be treated. Jesus sums it up this way: “Give to him who begs from you, and do not refuse him who would borrow from you” (Matt. 5:42). Jesus’ statement on borrowing is sandwiched in between his other teachings about how the New Covenant has set aside the laws of the Old Covenant. The spirit of the New Covenant is charity, even to the point of sacrifice. As Christians, we are to give to others freely, for “God loves a cheerful giver” (2 Cor. 9:7). This is the essence of loving God and neighbor.

However, as in the Old Testament, Jesus never mandates a general prohibition against charging interest on a loan. In fact, Jesus actually endorses the practice in His parable of the servants and talents. Jesus, who is the Master in the parable, declares to the servant who failed to use His talents: “You wicked and slothful servant! You knew that I reap where I have not sowed, and gather where I have not winnowed? Then you ought to have invested my money with the bankers, and at my coming I should have received what was my own with interest” (Matt. 25:27; Luke 19:23).

Since Jesus condemns the servant for failing to invest His money to make interest, the charging/earning of interest cannot be an intrinsically evil practice. Jesus would not chastise His servant for failing to do evil. Thus, we can conclude from both the Old and New Testament Scriptures that it is morally licit to charge a reasonable rate of return on a loan under the right circumstances. As we have seen, since money in our modern markets is “fruitful” (that is, money can be productive even when idle) it is morally permissible to charge/earn interest on money (which is NOT “usury”). This is the teaching of Sacred Scripture and the Holy Catholic Church.

Top

 


Copyright 2001 - 2007 © by John Salza. All Rights Reserved.
johnsalza@scripturecatholic.com