II. New Testament
(a). Jesus Promises His Real Presence in the
John 6:4,11-14 - on the eve of the Passover, Jesus performs the miracle of
multiplying the loaves. This was prophesied in the Old Testament (e.g., 2
Kings4:43), and foreshadows the infinite heavenly bread which is Him.
Matt. 14:19, 15:36; Mark 6:41, 8:6; Luke 9:16 - these passages are additional
accounts of the multiplication miracles. This points to the Eucharist.
Matt. 16:12 - in this verse, Jesus explains His metaphorical use of the term
"bread." In John 6, He eliminates any metaphorical possibilities.
John 6:4 - Jesus is in Capernaum on the eve of Passover, and the lambs are
gathered to be slaughtered and eaten. Look what He says.
John 6:35,41,48,51 - Jesus says four times "I AM the bread from heaven." It is
He, Himself, the eternal bread from heaven.
John 6:27,31,49 - there is a parallel between the manna in the desert which was
physically consumed, and this "new" bread which must be consumed.
John 6:51-52- then Jesus says that the bread He is referring to is His flesh.
The Jews take Him literally and immediately question such a teaching. How can
this man give us His flesh to eat?
John 6:53 - 58 - Jesus does not correct their literal interpretation. Instead,
Jesus eliminates any metaphorical interpretations by swearing an oath and being
even more literal about eating His flesh. In fact, Jesus says four times we
must eat His flesh and drink His blood. Catholics thus believe that Jesus makes
present His body and blood in the sacrifice of the Mass. Protestants, if they
are not going to become Catholic, can only argue that Jesus was somehow
John 6:23-53 - however, a symbolic interpretation is not plausible. Throughout
these verses, the Greek text uses the word "phago" nine times. "Phago"
literally means "to eat" or "physically consume." Like the Protestants of our
day, the disciples take issue with Jesus' literal usage of "eat." So Jesus does
John 6:54, 56, 57, 58 - He uses an even more literal verb, translated as
"trogo," which means to gnaw or chew or crunch. He increases the literalness
and drives his message home. Jesus will literally give us His flesh and blood
to eat. The word “trogo” is only used two other times in the New Testament (in
Matt. 24:38 and John 13:18) and it always means to literally gnaw or chew meat.
While “phago” might also have a spiritual application, "trogo" is never used
metaphorically in Greek. So Protestants cannot find one verse in Scripture
where "trogo" is used symbolically, and yet this must be their argument if they
are going to deny the Catholic understanding of Jesus' words. Moreover, the
Jews already knew Jesus was speaking literally even before Jesus used the word
“trogo” when they said “How can this man give us His flesh to eat?” (John
John 6:55 - to clarify further, Jesus says "For My Flesh is food indeed, and My
Blood is drink indeed." This phrase can only be understood as being responsive
to those who do not believe that Jesus' flesh is food indeed, and His blood is
drink indeed. Further, Jesus uses the word which is translated as "sarx."
"Sarx" means flesh (not "soma" which means body). See, for example, John
1:13,14; 3:6; 8:15; 17:2; Matt. 16:17; 19:5; 24:22; 26:41; Mark 10:8; 13:20;
14:38; and Luke 3:6; 24:39 which provides other examples in Scripture where
"sarx" means flesh. It is always literal.
John 6:55 - further, the phrases "real" food and "real" drink use the word
"alethes." "Alethes" means "really" or "truly," and would only be used if there
were doubts concerning the reality of Jesus' flesh and blood as being food and
drink. Thus, Jesus is emphasizing the miracle of His body and blood being
actual food and drink.
John 6:60 - as are many anti-Catholics today, Jesus' disciples are scandalized
by these words. They even ask, "Who can 'listen' to it (much less understand
it)?" To the unillumined mind, it seems grotesque.
John 6:61-63 - Jesus acknowledges their disgust. Jesus' use of the phrase "the
spirit gives life" means the disciples need supernatural faith, not logic, to
understand His words.
John 3:6 - Jesus often used the comparison of "spirit versus flesh" to teach
about the necessity of possessing supernatural faith versus a natural
understanding. In Mark 14:38 Jesus also uses the "spirit/flesh" comparison. The
spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. We must go beyond the natural to
understand the supernatural. In 1 Cor. 2:14,3:3; Rom 8:5; and Gal. 5:17, Paul
also uses the "spirit/flesh" comparison to teach that unspiritual people are
not receiving the gift of faith. They are still "in the flesh."
John 6:63 - Protestants often argue that Jesus' use of the phrase "the spirit
gives life" shows that Jesus was only speaking symbolically. However,
Protestants must explain why there is not one place in Scripture where "spirit"
means "symbolic." As we have seen, the use of "spirit" relates to supernatural
faith. What words are spirit and life? The words that we must eat Jesus' flesh
and drink His blood, or we have no life in us.
John 6:66-67 - many disciples leave Jesus, rejecting this literal
interpretation that we must eat His flesh and drink His blood. At this point,
these disciples really thought Jesus had lost His mind. If they were wrong
about the literal interpretation, why wouldn't Jesus, the Great Teacher, have
corrected them? Why didn't Jesus say, "Hey, come back here, I was only speaking
symbolically!"? Because they understood correctly.
Mark 4:34 - Jesus always explained to His disciples the real meanings of His
teachings. He never would have let them go away with a false impression, most
especially in regard to a question about eternal salvation.
John 6:37 - Jesus says He would not drive those away from Him. They understood
Him correctly but would not believe.
John 3:5,11; Matt. 16:11-12 - here are some examples of Jesus correcting wrong
impressions of His teaching. In the Eucharistic discourse, Jesus does not
correct the scandalized disciples.
John 6:64,70 - Jesus ties the disbelief in the Real Presence of His Body and
Blood in the Eucharist to Judas' betrayal. Those who don't believe in this
miracle betray Him.
Psalm 27:2; Isa. 9:20; 49:26; Mic. 3:3; 2 Sam. 23:17; Rev. 16:6; 17:6, 16 - to
further dispense with the Protestant claim that Jesus was only speaking
symbolically, these verses demonstrate that symbolically eating body and blood
is always used in a negative context of a physical assault. It always means
“destroying an enemy,” not becoming intimately close with him. Thus, if Jesus
were speaking symbolically in John 6:51-58, He would be saying to us, "He who
reviles or assaults me has eternal life." This, of course, is absurd.
John 10:7 - Protestants point out that Jesus did speak metaphorically about
Himself in other places in Scripture. For example, here Jesus says, "I am the
door." But in this case, no one asked Jesus if He was literally made of wood.
They understood him metaphorically.
John 15:1,5 - here is another example, where Jesus says, "I am the vine."
Again, no one asked Jesus if He was literally a vine. In John 6, Jesus'
disciples did ask about His literal speech (that this bread was His flesh which
must be eaten). He confirmed that His flesh and blood were food and drink
indeed. Many disciples understood Him and left Him.
Matt. 26:29; Mark 14:25; Luke 22:18 – Jesus says He will not drink of the
“fruit of the vine” until He drinks it new in the kingdom. Some Protestants try
to use this verse (because Jesus said “fruit of the vine”) to prove the wine
cannot be His blood. But the Greek word for fruit is “genneema” which literally
means “that which is generated from the vine.” In John 15:1,5 Jesus says “I am
the vine.” So “fruit of the vine” can also mean Jesus’ blood. In 1 Cor.
11:26-27, Paul also used “bread” and “the body of the Lord” interchangeably in
the same sentence. Also, see Matt. 3:7;12:34;23:33 for examples were “genneema”
means “birth” or “generation.”
Rom. 14:14-18; 1 Cor. 8:1-13; 1 Tim. 4:3 – Protestants often argue that
drinking blood and eating certain sacrificed meats were prohibited in the New
Testament, so Jesus would have never commanded us to consume His body and
blood. But these verses prove them wrong, showing that Paul taught all foods,
even meat offered to idols, strangled, or with blood, could be consumed by the
Christian if it didn’t bother the brother’s conscience and were consumed with
thanksgiving to God.
Matt. 18:2-5 - Jesus says we must become like children, or we will not enter
the kingdom of God. We must believe Jesus' words with child-like faith. Because
Jesus says this bread is His flesh, we believe by faith, even though it
surpasses our understanding.
Luke 1:37 - with God, nothing is impossible. If we can believe in the
incredible reality of the Incarnation, we can certainly believe in the Real
Presence of Jesus in the Eucharist. God coming to us in elements He created is
an extension of the awesome mystery of the Incarnation.
(b). Jesus Institutes the Eucharist / More Proofs
of the Real Presence
Matt. 26:26-28; Mark. 14:22,24; Luke 22;19-20; 1 Cor. 11:24-25 - Jesus says,
this IS my body and blood. Jesus does not say, this is a symbol of my body and
Matt. 26:26; Mark. 14:22; Luke 22:19-20 - the Greek phrase is "Touto estin to
soma mou." This phraseology means "this is actually" or "this is really" my
body and blood.
1 Cor. 11:24 - the same translation is used by Paul - "touto mou estin to
soma." The statement is "this is really" my body and blood. Nowhere in
Scripture does God ever declare something without making it so.
Matt. 26:26; Mark. 14:22; Luke 22:19 - to deny the 2,000 year-old Catholic
understanding of the Eucharist, Protestants must argue that Jesus was really
saying "this represents (not is) my body and blood." However, Aramaic, the
language that Jesus spoke, had over 30 words for "represent," but Jesus did not
use any of them. He used the Aramaic word for "estin" which means "is."
Matt. 26:28; Mark. 14:24; Luke 22:20 - Jesus' use of "poured out" in reference
to His blood also emphasizes the reality of its presence.
Exodus 24:8 - Jesus emphasizes the reality of His actual blood being present by
using Moses' statement "blood of the covenant."
1 Cor. 10:16 - Paul asks the question, "the cup of blessing and the bread of
which we partake, is it not an actual participation in Christ's body and
blood?" Is Paul really asking because He, the divinely inspired writer, does
not understand? No, of course not. Paul's questions are obviously rhetorical.
This IS the actual body and blood. Further, the Greek word "koinonia" describes
an actual, not symbolic participation in the body and blood.
1 Cor. 10:18 - in this verse, Paul is saying we are what we eat. We are not
partners with a symbol. We are partners of the one actual body.
1 Cor. 11:23 - Paul does not explain what he has actually received directly
from Christ, except in the case when he teaches about the Eucharist. Here, Paul
emphasizes the importance of the Eucharist by telling us he received directly
from Jesus instructions on the Eucharist which is the source and summit of the
1 Cor. 11:27-29 - in these verses, Paul says that eating or drinking in an
unworthy manner is the equivalent of profaning (literally, murdering) the body
and blood of the Lord. If this is just a symbol, we cannot be guilty of
actually profaning (murdering) it. We cannot murder a symbol. Either Paul, the
divinely inspired apostle of God, is imposing an unjust penalty, or the
Eucharist is the actual body and blood of Christ.
1 Cor. 11:30 - this verse alludes to the consequences of receiving the
Eucharist unworthily. Receiving the actual body and blood of Jesus in mortal
sin results in actual physical consequences to our bodies.
1 Cor. 11:27-30 - thus, if we partake of the Eucharist unworthily, we are
guilty of literally murdering the body of Christ, and risking physical
consequences to our bodies. This is overwhelming evidence for the Real Presence
of Christ in the Eucharist. These are unjust penalties if the Eucharist is just
Acts 2:42 - from the Church's inception, apostolic tradition included
celebrating the Eucharist (the "breaking of the bread") to fulfill Jesus'
command "do this in remembrance of me."
Acts 20:28 - Paul charges the Church elders to "feed" the Church of the Lord,
that is, with the flesh and blood of Christ.
Matt. 6:11; Luke 11:3 - in the Our Father, we ask God to give us this day our
daily bread, that is the bread of life, Jesus Christ.
Matt. 12:39 – Jesus says no “sign” will be given except the “sign of the
prophet Jonah.” While Protestants focus only on the “sign” of the Eucharist,
this verse demonstrates that a sign can be followed by the reality (here,
Jesus’ resurrection, which is intimately connected to the Eucharist).
Matt. 19:6 - Jesus says a husband and wife become one flesh which is
consummated in the life giving union of the marital act. This union of marital
love which reflects Christ's union with the Church is physical, not just
spiritual. Thus, when Paul says we are a part of Christ's body (Eph. 1:22-23;
5:23,30-31; Col. 1:18,24), he means that our union with Christ is physical, not
just spiritual. But our union with Christ can only be physical if He is
actually giving us something physical, that is Himself, which is His body and
blood to consume (otherwise it is a mere spiritual union).
Luke 14:15 - blessed is he who eats this bread in the kingdom of God, on earth
and in heaven.
Luke 22:19, 1 Cor. 11:24-25 - Jesus commands the apostles to "do this," that
is, offer the Eucharistic sacrifice, in remembrance of Him.
Luke 24:26-35 - in the Emmaus road story, Jesus gives a homily on the
Scriptures and then follows it with the celebration of the Eucharist. This is
the Holy Mass, and the Church has followed this order of the Liturgy of the
Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist for 2,000 years.
Luke 24:30-31,35 - Jesus is known only in the breaking of bread. Luke is
emphasizing that we only receive the fullness of Jesus by celebrating the
Eucharistic feast of His body and blood, which is only offered in its fullness
by the Catholic Church.
John 1:14 - literally, this verse teaches that the Word was made flesh and
"pitched His tabernacle" among us. The Eucharist, which is the Incarnate Word
of God under the appearance of bread, is stored in the tabernacles of Catholic
churches around the world.
John 21:15,17 - Jesus charges Peter to "feed" His sheep, that is, with the Word
of God through preaching and the Eucharist.
Acts 9:4-5; 22:8; 26:14-15 – Jesus asks Saul, “Why are you persecuting me?”
when Saul was persecuting the Church. Jesus and the Church are one body
(Bridegroom and Bride), and we are one with Jesus through His flesh and blood
1 Cor. 12:13 - we "drink" of one Spirit in the Eucharist by consuming the blood
of Christ eternally offered to the Father.
Heb. 10:25,29 - these verses allude to the reality that failing to meet
together to celebrate the Eucharist is mortal sin. It is profaning the body and
blood of the Lord.
Heb. 12:22-23 - the Eucharistic liturgy brings about full union with angels in
festal gathering, the just spirits, and God Himself, which takes place in the
assembly or "ecclesia" (the Church).
Heb. 12:24 - we couldn't come to Jesus' sprinkled blood if it were no longer
offered by Jesus to the Father and made present for us.
2 Pet. 1:4 - we partake of His divine nature, most notably through the
Eucharist - a sacred family bond where we become one.
Rev. 2:7; 22:14 - we are invited to eat of the tree of life, which is the
resurrected flesh of Jesus which, before, hung on the tree.
(c). Jesus' Passion is Connected to the Passover
Sacrifice where the Lamb Must Be Eaten
Matt. 26:2; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7 - Jesus' passion is clearly identified with
the Passover sacrifice (where lambs were slain and eaten).
John 1:29,36; Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:19 - Jesus is described as the Lamb of God
who takes away the sins of the world. The Lamb must be sacrificed and eaten.
Luke 23:4,14; John 18:38; 19:4,6 - under the Old Covenant, the lambs were
examined on Nisan 14 to ensure that they had no blemish. The Gospel writers
also emphasize that Jesus the Lamb was examined on Nisan 14 and no fault was
found in him. He is the true Passover Lamb which must be eaten.
Heb. 9:14 - Jesus offering Himself "without blemish" refers to the unblemished
lamb in Exodus 12:5 which had to be consumed.
Matt. 26:29; Mark 14:25 - Jesus is celebrating the Passover seder meal with the
apostles which requires them to drink four cups of wine. But Jesus only
presents the first three cups. He stops at the Third Cup (called “Cup of
Blessing” - that is why Paul in 1 Cor. 10:16 uses the phrase “Cup of Blessing”
to refer to the Eucharist – he ties the seder meal to the Eucharistic
sacrifice). But Jesus conspicuously tells his apostles that He is omitting the
Fourth Cup called the “Cup of Consummation.” The Gospel writers point this
critical omission of the seder meal out to us to demonstrate that the
Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacrifice on the cross are one and the same
sacrifice, and the sacrifice would not be completed until Jesus drank the
Fourth Cup on the cross.
Matt. 26:30; Mark 14:26 - they sung the great Hallel, which traditionally
followed the Third Cup of the seder meal, but did not drink the Fourth Cup of
Consummation. The Passover sacrifice had begun, but was not yet finished. It
continued in the Garden of Gethsemane and was consummated on the cross.
Matt. 26:39; Mark 14:36; Luke 22:42; John 18:11 - our Lord acknowledges He has
one more cup to drink. This is the Cup of Consummation which he will drink on
Psalm 116:13 - this passage references this cup of salvation. Jesus will offer
this Cup as both Priest and Victim. This is the final cup of the New Testament
Luke 22:44 - after the Eucharist, Jesus sweats blood in the garden of
Gethsemane. This shows that His sacrifice began in the Upper Room and connects
the Passion to the seder meal where the lamb must not only be sacrificed, but
Matt. 27:34; Mark 15:23 - Jesus, in his Passion, refuses to even drink an
opiate. The writers point this out to emphasize that the final cup will be
drunk on the cross, after the Paschal Lamb's sacrifice is completed.
John 19:23 - this verse describes the "chiton" garment Jesus wore when He
offered Himself on the cross. These were worn by the Old Testament priests to
offer sacrifices. See Exodus 28:4; Lev. 16:4.
John 19:29; cf. Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36; - Jesus is provided wine (the Fourth
Cup) on a hyssop branch which was used to sprinkle the lambs' blood in Exodus
12:22. This ties Jesus' sacrifice to the Passover lambs which had to be
consumed in the seder meal which was ceremonially completed by drinking the Cup
of Consummation. Then in John 19:30, Jesus says, “It is consummated.” The
sacrifice began in the upper room and was completed on the cross. God’s love
for humanity is made manifest.
Matt. 27:45; Mark 15:33; John 19:14 - the Gospel writers confirm Jesus' death
at the sixth hour, just when the Passover lambs were sacrificed. Again, this
ties Jesus' death to the death of the Passover lambs. Like the Old Covenant, in
the New Covenant, the Passover Lamb must be eaten.
1 Cor. 5:7 - Paul tells us that the Lamb has been sacrificed. But what do we
need to do? Some Protestants say we just need to accept Jesus as personal Lord
1 Cor. 5:8 - But Paul says that we need to celebrate the Eucharistic feast.
This means that we need to eat the Lamb. We need to restore communion with God.
Heb. 13:15 - "sacrifice of praise" or "toda" refers to the thanksgiving
offerings of Lev. 7:12-15; 22:29-30 which had to be eaten.
1 Cor. 10:16 - Paul's use of the phrase "the cup of blessing" refers to the
Third Cup of the seder meal. This demonstrates that the seder meal is tied to
Christ's Eucharistic sacrifice.
John 19:34-35 - John conspicuously draws attention here. The blood (Eucharist)
and water (baptism) make the fountain that cleanses sin as prophesied in Zech
13:1. Just like the birth of the first bride came from the rib of the first
Adam, the birth of the second bride (the Church) came from the rib of the
second Adam (Jesus). Gen. 2:22.
John 7:38 - out of His Heart shall flow rivers of living water, the Spirit.
Consequently, Catholics devote themselves to Jesus' Sacred Heart.
Matt. 2:1, Luke 2:4-7 - Jesus the bread of life was born in a feeding trough in
the city of Bethlehem, which means "house of bread."
Luke 2: 7,12 - Jesus was born in a "manger" (which means "to eat"). This
symbolism reveals that Jesus took on flesh and was born to be food for the
salvation of the world.
(d). The Eucharist Makes Present Jesus' One Eternal
Sacrifice; it's Not Just a Symbolic Memorial
Gen. 14:18 - remember that Melchizedek's bread and wine offering foreshadowed
the sacramental re-presentation of Jesus' offering.
Luke 22:19; 1 Cor. 11:24-25 - the translation of Jesus' words of consecration
is "touto poieite tan eman anamnasin." Jesus literally said "offer this as my
memorial sacrifice." The word “poiein” (do) refers to offering a sacrifice
(see, e.g., Exodus 29:38-39, where God uses the same word – poieseis –
regarding the sacrifice of the lambs on the altar). The word “anamnesis”
(remembrance) also refers to a sacrifice which is really or actually made
present in time by the power of God, as it reminds God of the actual event
(see, e.g., Heb. 10:3; Num. 10:10). It is not just a memorial of a past event,
but a past event made present in time.
In other words, the “sacrifice” is the “memorial” or “reminder.” If the
Eucharist weren’t a sacrifice, Luke would have used the word “mnemosunon”
(which is the word used to describe a nonsacrificial memorial. See, for
example, Matt. 26:13; Mark 14:9; and especially Acts 10:4). So there are two
memorials, one sacrificial (which Jesus instituted), and one non-sacrificial.
Lev. 24:7 - the word "memorial" in Hebrew in the sacrificial sense is "azkarah"
which means to actually make present (see Lev. 2:2,9,16;5:12;6:5; Num.5:26
where “azkarah” refers to sacrifices that are currently offered and thus
present in time). Jesus' instruction to offer the bread and wine (which He
changed into His body and blood) as a "memorial offering" demonstrates that the
offering of His body and blood is made present in time over and over again.
Num. 10:10 - in this verse, "remembrance" refers to a sacrifice, not just a
symbolic memorial. So Jesus' command to offer the memorial “in remembrance” of
Him demonstrates that the memorial offering is indeed a sacrifice currently
offered. It is a re-presentation of the actual sacrifice made present in time.
It is as if the curtain of history is drawn and Calvary is made present to us.
Mal. 1:10-11 - Jesus' command to his apostles to offer His memorial sacrifice
of bread and wine which becomes His body and blood fulfills the prophecy that
God would reject the Jewish sacrifices and receive a pure sacrifice offered in
every place. This pure sacrifice of Christ is sacramentally re-presented from
the rising of the sun to its setting in every place, as Malachi prophesied.
Heb. 9:23 - in this verse, the author writes that the Old Testament sacrifices
were only copies of the heavenly things, but now heaven has better “sacrifices”
than these. Why is the heavenly sacrifice called “sacrifices,” in the plural?
Jesus died once. This is because, while Christ’s sacrifice is transcendent in
heaven, it touches down on earth and is sacramentally re-presented over and
over again from the rising of the sun to its setting around the world by the
priests of Christ’s Church. This is because all moments to God are present in
their immediacy, and when we offer the memorial sacrifice to God, we ask God to
make the sacrifice that is eternally present to Him also present to us. Jesus’
sacrifice also transcends time and space because it was the sacrifice of God
Heb. 9:23 - the Eucharistic sacrifice also fulfills Jer. 33:18 that His kingdom
will consist of a sacrificial priesthood forever, and fulfills Zech. 9:15 that
the sons of Zion shall drink blood like wine and be saved.
Heb. 13:15 - this "sacrifice of praise" refers to the actual sacrifice or
"toda" offering of Christ who, like the Old Testament toda offerings, now must
be consumed. See, for example, Lev. 7:12-15; 22:29-30 which also refer to the
“sacrifice of praise” in connection with animals who had to be eaten after they
1 Peter 2:5-6 - Peter says that we as priests offer "sacrifices" to God through
Jesus, and he connects these sacrifices to Zion where the Eucharist was
established. These sacrifices refer to the one eternal Eucharistic sacrifice of
Christ offered in every place around the world.
Rom. 12:1 - some Protestants argue that the Eucharist is not really the
sacrifice of Christ, but a symbolic offering, because the Lord's blood is not
shed (Heb. 9:22). However, Paul instructs us to present ourselves as a "living
sacrifice" to God. This verse demonstrates that not all sacrifices are bloody
and result in death (for example, see the wave offerings of Aaron in Num.
8:11,13,15,21 which were unbloody sacrifices). The Eucharistic sacrifice is
unbloody and lifegiving, the supreme and sacramental wave offering of Christ,
mysteriously presented in a sacramental way, but nevertheless the one actual
and eternal sacrifice of Christ. Moreover, our bodies cannot be a holy
sacrifice unless they are united with Christ's sacrifice made present on the
altar of the Holy Mass.
1 Cor. 10:16 - "the cup of blessing" or Third cup makes present the actual
paschal sacrifice of Christ, the Lamb who was slain.
1 Cor. 10:18 - Paul indicates that what is eaten from the altar has been
sacrificed, and we become partners with victim. What Catholic priests offer
from the altar has indeed been sacrificed, our Lord Jesus, the paschal Lamb.
1 Cor. 10:20 - Paul further compares the sacrifices of pagans to the
Eucharistic sacrifice - both are sacrifices, but one is offered to God. This
proves that the memorial offering of Christ is a sacrifice.
1 Cor. 11:26 - Paul teaches that as often as you eat the bread and drink the
cup, you proclaim the Lord's death. This means that celebrating the Eucharist
is proclaiming the Gospel.
1 Cor. 10:21 - Paul's usage of the phrase "table of the Lord" in celebrating
the Eucharist is further evidence that the Eucharist is indeed a sacrifice. The
Jews always understood the phrase "table of the Lord" to refer to an altar of
sacrifice. See, for example, Lev. 24:6, Ezek. 41:22; 44:16 and Malachi 1:7,12,
where the phrase "table of the Lord" in these verses always refers to an altar
Heb. 13:10,15 - this earthly altar is used in the Mass to offer the Eucharistic
sacrifice of praise to God through our eternal Priest, Jesus Christ.
(e). Jesus in Glory Perpetually Offers the Father
His Sacrifice on Our Behalf
Rev. 1 to 22 - Jesus is described as the "Lamb" 28 times in the book of
Revelation. This is because Jesus emphasizes His sacrifice in heaven and in His
Holy Catholic Church.
Rev. 1:13 - Jesus is clothed in heaven with a long robe and golden girdle like
the Old Testament priests who offered animal sacrifices. See Exodus 28:4.
Rev. 2:17 - the spiritual manna, our Lord's glorious body and blood, is
emphasized in the heavenly feast.
Rev. 3:20 - as Priest and Paschal Lamb, our Lord shares the Eucharistic meal
with us to seal His New Covenant. Through the covenant of his body and blood,
we are restored to the Father and become partakers of the divine nature.
Rev. 5:6 - this verse tells us that Jesus in His glory still looks like a lamb
who was slain. Also, Jesus is "standing" as though a Lamb who was slain. Lambs
that are slain lie down. This odd depiction shows Jesus stands at the Altar as
our eternal priest in forever offering Himself to the Father for our salvation.
Rev. 7:14 - the blood of the Lamb is eternally offered in heaven with the
washing of the robes to make them white.
Rev. 14:1, Heb. 12:22 - Zion is the city where Jesus established the Eucharist
and which was miraculously preserved after the destruction of Jerusalem. See
also Psalms 2:6 and 132:13. It represents the union of heaven and earth, of
divinity and humanity. This is why those who enter into the Eucharistic
celebration on earth enter into the presence of innumerable angels, the souls
of the just made perfect, Jesus the Mediator of the Covenant and His sprinkled
blood, and God the Judge of all.
Rev. 19:13 - in all His glory, Jesus' sacrifice is eternally present as He
presents Himself to the Father clothed in a robe dipped in blood. Jesus'
sacrifice is the focus in heaven and in the Mass. When the Father beholds His
Son, He beholds His sacrifice for humanity.
Rev. 19:9 - we are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb where we become
one with Him by consuming His body and blood. This is the nuptial union of
divinity and humanity.
Heb. 2:17; 3:1; 4:14; 8:1; 9:11,25; 10:19,22 - Jesus is repeatedly described as
"High Priest." But in order to be a priest, “it is necessary for [Jesus] to
have something to offer.” Heb. 8:3. This is the offering of the eternal
sacrifice of His body and blood to the Father.
Heb. 2:18 - although His suffering is past tense, His expiation of our sins is
present tense because His offering is continual. Therefore, He is able (present
tense) to help those who are tempted.
Heb. 5:6,10; 6:20; 7:15,17 - these verses show that Jesus restores the
father-son priesthood after Melchizedek. Jesus is the new priest and King of
Jerusalem and feeds the new children of Abraham with His body and blood. This
means that His eternal sacrifice is offered in the same manner as the bread and
wine offered by Melchizedek in Gen. 14:18. But the bread and wine that Jesus
offers is different, just as the Passover Lamb of the New Covenant is
different. The bread and wine become His body and blood by the overshadowing of
the Holy Spirit.
Heb. 4:3 – God’s works were finished from the foundation of the world. This
means that God’s works, including Christ’s sacrifice (the single act that
secured the redemption of our souls and bodies), are forever present in
eternity. Jesus’ suffering is over and done with (because suffering was earthly
and temporal), but His sacrifice is eternal, because His priesthood is eternal
(His victimized state was only temporal).
Heb. 4:14 – Jesus the Sacrifice passes through the heavens by the glory cloud
of God, just like the sacrifices of Solomon were taken up into heaven by the
glory cloud of God in 2 Chron. 7:1. See also Mark 16:19; Luke 24:51; and Acts
Heb. 7:24 – Jesus holds His priesthood is forever because He continues forever,
so His sacrificial offering is forever. He continues to offer His body and
blood to us because He is forever our High Priest.
Heb. 8:2 - Jesus is a minister in the sanctuary offering up (present tense) His
eternal sacrifice to the Father which is perfected in heaven. This is the same
sanctuary that we enter with confidence by the blood of Jesus as written in
Heb. 10:19. See also Heb. 12:22-24.
Heb. 8:3 - as High Priest, it is necessary for Jesus to have something to
offer. What is Jesus offering in heaven? As eternal Priest, He offers the
eternal sacrifice of His body and blood.
Heb. 8:6; 9:15; cf. Heb. 12:22-24; 13:20-21 - the covenant Jesus mediates
(present tense) is better than the Old covenant. The covenant He mediates is
the covenant of His body and blood which He offers in the Eucharist. See Matt.
26:26-28; Mark. 14:22,24; Luke 22;19-20; 1 Cor. 11:24-25 - which is the only
time Jesus uses the word “covenant” (which is the offering of His body and
Heb. 9:12 – Jesus enters into heaven, the Holy Place, taking His own blood. How
can this be? He wasn’t bleeding after the resurrection. This is because He
enters into the heavenly sanctuary to mediate the covenant of His body and
blood by eternally offering it to the Father. This offering is made present to
us in the same manner as Melchizedek’s offering, under the appearance of bread
Heb. 9:14 - the blood of Christ offered in heaven purifies (present tense) our
consciences from dead works to serve the living God. Christ's offering is
Heb. 9:22 – blood is indeed required for the remission of sin. Jesus' blood was
shed once, but it is continually offered to the Father. This is why Jesus takes
His blood, which was shed once and for all, into heaven. Heb. 9:12.
Heb. 9:23 – Jesus’ sacrifice, which is presented eternally to the Father in
heaven, is described as “sacrifices” (in the plural) in the context of its
re-presentation on earth (the author first writes about the earthly sacrifices
of animals, and then the earthly offerings of Jesus Christ’s eternal
Heb. 9:26 – Jesus’ once and for all appearance into heaven to put away sin by
the sacrifice of Himself shows that Jesus’ presence in heaven and His sacrifice
are inseparable. This also shows that “once for all,” which refers to Jesus’
appearance in heaven, means perpetual (it does not, and cannot mean, “over and
done with” because Jesus is in heaven for eternity). “Once for all” also refers
to Jesus’ suffering and death (Heb. 7:27; 9:12,26;10:10-14). But “once for all”
never refers to Jesus’ sacrifice, which is eternally presented to the Father.
This sacrifice is the Mal. 1:11 pure offering made present in every place from
the rising of the sun to its setting in the Eucharist offered in the same
manner as the Melchizedek offering.
Heb. 10:19 - we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus on
earth in the Eucharistic liturgy, which is the heavenly sanctuary where Jesus’
offering is presented to God in Heb. 8:2.
Heb. 10:22 - our hearts and bodies are (not were) washed clean by the action of
Jesus' perpetual priesthood in heaven.
Heb. 13:10 – the author writes that we have an altar from which those who serve
the tent have no right to eat. This altar is the heavenly altar at which Jesus
presides as Priest before the Father, eternally offering His body and blood on
our behalf. See. Mal. 1:7,12; Lev. 24:7; Ez. 41:22; 44:16; Rev. 5:6; 6:9; 9:13;
Heb. 13:20-21 - Jesus died once, but His blood of the eternal covenant is
eternally offered to equip us (present tense) with everything good that we may
do God's will.
Heb. 13:8 - this is because Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and
forever. While His suffering was temporal (because bodily pain is temporal),
Jesus and His sacrifice are eternal (because redemption, salvation, and the
mediation of the New covenant are eternal).
Heb. 13:15 – the letter concludes with an instruction to continually offer up,
through Christ, a sacrifice of praise to God. The phrase “sacrifice of praise”
refers to the “toda” animal sacrifices that had to be consumed. See, for
example, Lev. 7:12-15; 22:29-30.
1 Pet. 2:9; Rev. 20:6 - we are a royal priesthood in Jesus, and offer His
sacrifice to the Father on earth as He does in heaven.
1 John 1:7 - the blood of Jesus cleanses us (present tense) from all sin. His
blood cannot currently cleanse us unless it is currently offered for us.
(f). The Book of Revelation and the Holy Mass
The Book of Revelation shows us glimpses of the heavenly liturgy – Jesus
Christ’s once and for all sacrifice eternally present in heaven. This is why
the Church has always incorporated the elements that John saw in the heavenly
liturgy into her earthly liturgy, for they are one and the same liturgical
action of Jesus Christ our High Priest.
Rev. 1:6, 20:6 - heaven's identification of the priesthood of the faithful is
the same as the Church's identification on earth.
Rev. 1:10 - John witnesses the heavenly liturgy on Sunday, the Lord's day,
which is a Catholic holy day of obligation for attending Mass on earth.
Rev. 1:12, 2:5 - there are lampstands or Menorahs in heaven. These have always
been used in the Holy Mass of the Church on earth.
Rev. 1:13 - Jesus is clothed as High Priest. Our priests also clothe themselves
as "alter Christuses" (other Christs) in offering His sacrifice in the Holy
Mass on earth.
Rev. 1:13, 4:4, 6:11, 7:9, 15:6, 19:13-14 - priests wear special vestments in
heaven. Our priests also wear special vestments in celebrating the Holy Mass on
Rev. 2:5,16,21; 3:3; 16:11 - there is a penitential rite in heaven which is
also part of the liturgy of the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 2:17 - there is manna in heaven given to the faithful. This is the same as
the Eucharistic manna given to the faithful at the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 4:4, 5:14; 11:16, 14:3, 19:4 - there are priests ("presbyteroi") in
heaven. Priests offer sacrifice. Our earthly priests participate with the
heavenly priests in offering Jesus' eternal sacrifice in the Holy Mass on
Rev. 4:8 - heaven's liturgical chant "Holy, Holy, Holy" is the same that is
used in the liturgy of the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 4:8-11, 5:9-14, 7:10-12, 18:1-8 - the various antiphonal chants in the
heavenly liturgy are similar to those used at the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 5:1 - there is a book or scroll of God's word in heaven. This is reflected
in the Liturgy of the Word at the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 5:6 and throughout - heaven's description of Jesus as the "Lamb" is the
same as the description of Jesus as the Lamb of God in the Eucharistic liturgy
of the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 5:8, 6:9-11, 8:3-4 - heaven's emphasis on the intercession of the saints
is the same as the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 5:8, 8:3-4 - there is incense in heaven which has always been part of the
liturgy of the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 5:14; 7:12; 19:4 - heaven's concluding liturgical prayer "Amen" is the
same as is used at the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 6:9 - the martyrs who are seen under the heavenly altar is similar to the
Church's tradition of keeping relics of saints under the earthly altars.
Rev. 7:3, 14:1, 22:4 - there is the sign of the cross ("tau") in heaven. This
sign is used during the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 7:9; 14:6 - the catholicity or universality of heaven as God's family is
the essence of the Catholic faith on earth.
Rev. 8:1 - the silent contemplation in heaven is similar to our silent
contemplation at the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 8:3, 11:1, 14:18, 16:7 - there is an altar in heaven. But no altar is
needed unless a sacrifice is being offered in heaven. This is the same
sacrifice that is offered on the altars used in the Holy Masses on earth.
Rev. 11:12 - the phrase "come up here" is similar to the priest's charge to
"lift up your hearts" at the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 12:1-6, 13-17 - heaven's emphasis on the Blessed Virgin Mary is the same
as the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 12:7 - heaven's emphasis on the Archangel Michael's intercession is the
same as the concluding prayers at the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 14:4 - there are consecrated celibates in heaven, as there are with our
Catholic priests and religious on earth.
Rev. 15:7, 16:1-4,8,10,12,17; 21:9 - there are chalices (or bowls) in the
heavenly liturgy. This is like the chalices used to offer Christ's sacrifice in
the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 15:3-4 - there is the recitation of the "Gloria" in heaven. This is also
recited at the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 15:5 - there is a tent or tabernacle in heaven. Tabernacles are used to
store the Eucharist at the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 17, 19:9 - the consummation of the Lamb at heaven's marriage supper is the
same as the Lamb's supper in the Holy Mass on earth.
Rev. 19:1,3,4,6 - there is the recitation of the "Alleluia" in heaven. This is
also recited at the Holy Mass on earth.