MY TOP TEN
The following is a list of my Top Ten Scripture passages which Protestants
cannot adequately explain without embracing the teachings of the Catholic
Church. This list could be extended to a Top 20, a Top 50, or a Top 100, but
this list of 10 covers a lot of territory and can be easily comprehended before
more extensive apologetics are entertained. The Top 10 list also provides an
excellent introduction to Catholic teaching before the reader attempts to
consume the more than 2,000 Scripture passages and analyses on this website.
Catholics should become well-versed in these passages so they are able to
effectively witness to the truth of the Church. Protestants need to take these
verses to heart as they challenge their own beliefs and investigate Catholic
teaching. But both should remember that Catholic apologetics is not about being
right or wrong. It is about sharing the fullness of the truth that Jesus Christ
gave us through His Holy Catholic Church. I also believe that an analysis of
these and the other verses on ScriptureCatholic.com demonstrate that the
Catholic understanding of Scripture is almost always based on the plain meaning
of the words used by the writer, the most reasonable of the various
interpretations available, and the position that gives Jesus the most glory by
demonstrating His infinite love and mercy for us.
Matthew 16:18-19 / Isaiah 22:22 (Authority)
1 Timothy 3:15 (Authority)
2 Thessalonians 2:15 (Tradition)
1 Peter 3:21 (Baptism)
John 20:23 (Confession)
John 6:53-58, 66-67 (Eucharist)
1 Corinthians 11:27 (Eucharist)
James 5:14-15 (Anointing)
Colossians 1:24 (Suffering)
James 2:24 (Works)
Home · Next
I. Matthew 16:18-19 / Isaiah 22:22
"And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the
powers of death shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the
kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and
whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven."
"And I will place on his shoulder the key of the house of David; he shall open,
and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open."
Most Protestants believe that "church" refers to the mass of Christian
believers throughout the world, loosely connected to each other by their faith
in the Bible alone. But these verses demonstrate that the "Church" Jesus Christ
founded is not an invisible body of loosely-connected believers, but a visible
and hierarchical institution built upon the person of Peter, who was given
supreme authority, an office for dynastic succession, and the gift of
infallibility. This Church can only be the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic
In these verses, we see the following. First, Jesus builds His Church
(“ecclesia”) upon the person of Peter. As we learned in the previous link on
The Church, Jesus changes Simon's name to "Kepha," and says that on this
"Kepha" He will build the Church. Kepha, in Aramaic (the language Jesus spoke),
means a massive rock formation, and Jesus' use of Kepha to rename Peter
signifies Peter's foundational leadership in the Church. (See also Mark 3:16
and John 1:42 where Jesus renames Simon "Cephas" which is a transliteration of
the Aramaic "Kepha."). Only the Catholic Church recognizes and proves through
an unbroken lineage of successors that her foundation is Peter.
Secondly, Jesus says the powers of death will never prevail against the Church.
So even though Jesus appoints sinful human beings such as Peter to lead the
Church, Jesus promises that hell will not prevail against her. Because the
powers of hell refer to the supernatural, this must mean that the Church,
although lead by sinful people, is divinely protected. Because she is so
protected, the Church cannot lead the faithful into supernatural error. That
is, she is unable to teach error on matters of faith and morals. This inability
to teach error on faith and morals is called "infallibility" (it has nothing to
do with the sinfulness of the Church's leaders, which deals with
"impeccability"). If the Church were not infallible, the powers of death would
indeed prevail over her sinful members. The consistent, 2,000 years of the
Church’s teaching on faith and morals proves that Jesus has kept His promise.
Third, Jesus gives Peter the keys to the kingdom of heaven. While many
Protestants think that the gift of the "keys" means that Jesus appointed Peter
as the guardian of the gates of heaven, the "keys" actually refer to Peter's
authority over the earthly Church (which Jesus often described as the "kingdom
of heaven." Matthew 13:24-52; 25:1-2; Mark 4:26-32; Luke 9:27; 13:19-20, etc.)
In the Old Davidic kingdom, the king had a prime minister on whose shoulder God
placed the keys of the kingdom (Isaiah 22:22). Similarly, the new kingdom of
Christ also has a prime minister (Peter and his successors) who is given the
keys of the kingdom. The keys not only represent the authority the prime
minister has to rule over God's people in the king's absence, but also the
means of effecting dynastic succession to the prime minister's office (for
example, in Isaiah 22:20-22, Eliakim replaces Shebna as prime minister in the
Old Davidic kingdom). Only the Catholic Church claims and proves a succession
of prime ministers (popes) all the way back to Peter, and this succession is
facilitated by the passing of the keys of the kingdom.
Finally, Jesus declares to Peter that whatever he binds and looses on earth
will be bound and loosed in heaven. As in the Old Davidic kingdom, whenever
Peter the prime minister opens, no one shall shut, and whenever he shuts, no
one shall open. Jesus, therefore, gives Peter the authority to make decisions
that will be ratified in eternity. In order for sinful Peter (and his
successors through the passing on of the "keys") to make such decisions, he
must be divinely protected. Once again, this evidences Jesus' gift of
infallibility to the Church. Only the Catholic Church claims and has proven
that her 2,000 year-old teachings on faith and morals, which have never
changed, are infallibly proclaimed.
II. 1 Timothy 3:15
"If I am delayed, you may know how one ought to behave in the household of God,
which is the church of the living God, the pillar and bulwark of the truth."
Most Protestants believe that the Bible is the pillar and foundation of the
truth, and no knowledge outside of the Bible is necessary for our salvation.
But then why does Saint Paul write that the Church, and not the Bible, is the
pillar and foundation of the truth? This is a powerful text that refutes the
Protestant theory of sola Scriptura (Scripture alone) which erroneously holds
that the Bible is the sole source of Christian truth (a theory which cannot be
found anywhere in the Scriptures). Instead, Saint Paul says the Church is the
pillar and bulwark of the truth.
This means that all the truth Jesus left us concerning faith, morality and our
salvation flows from a living Church which, as we have learned, is built by
Christ upon the rock of Peter and his successors. As the Catholic Church
teaches, God has given us His truth in the form of the living word (written
Scriptures and oral tradition) and the living teaching authority of the Church,
endowed with the gift of binding and loosing. In fact, it is because the Church
is the foundation of truth that we believe in the Bible. This is because the
Catholic Church put the Bible together by determining which books were inspired
and which books were not. The Church completed its selection of the "canon of
Scripture" at the end of the fourth century. If the Catholic Church were not
the pinnacle and bulwark of the truth, our belief in the Bible would be without
The Church's compilation of the Bible illuminates the error of sola Scriptura.
As alluded to above, Protestants generally believe that God has revealed
everything that is necessary for our salvation through the Bible alone.
Consequently, they also believe that no knowledge found outside of the Bible
regarding the Christian faith is necessary for our salvation. However, the
knowledge of which Scriptures belong in the Bible and which Scriptures do not
is necessary for our salvation because if we didn't know this we could be led
into error. Further, this knowledge could only come from God because human
beings cannot necessarily discern divine inspiration.
The problem, therefore, with sola Scriptura, is that the knowledge of which
Scriptures are inspired and which ones are not is not contained in the Bible.
The Bible does not have an "inspired table of contents." Instead, this
knowledge of the canon of Scripture is a revelation from God that is necessary
for our salvation, and yet came to us from outside the Bible
. This revelation was given to the Holy Catholic Church, and this historical
and theological fact destroys the doctrine of sola Scriptura (interestingly,
while Protestants reject the authority of the Catholic Church on most matters,
they accept her authority in determining the New Testament canon of Scripture;
we pejoratively call such picking and choosing which doctrines to believe and
which doctrines to reject "Cafeteria Catholicism").
If I were a Protestant trying to prove sola Scriptura, and there was a verse
that said "the Bible is the pillar and bulwark of the truth," I would be
proclaiming that verse from the roof tops. At the same time, if I were a
Protestant, I would have to ignore 1 Timothy 3:15 to continue my protest of the
III. 2 Thessalonians 2:15
"So then, brethren, stand firm and hold to the traditions which you were taught
by us, either by word of mouth or by letter."
As we have discussed, Protestants believe that Christians are to follow the
Scriptures alone as their sole source of Christian truth (sola Scriptura). But
then why does Saint Paul tell us to follow both the Scriptures and the oral
word? Isn't Paul adding something else to follow in addition to the Bible? Yes
he is, because the doctrine of sola Scriptura is an erroneous doctrine.
Saint Paul is saying that obeying the written tradition (the Scriptures) is not
enough. We must also obey the oral tradition. This is the body of teaching that
Christ gave the apostles that was not written down (if it were, Saint John says
that "even the world itself could not contain the books that would be written."
John 21:25). In other words, it's everything else the Church teaches on faith
and morals. We can be thankful for the oral apostolic traditions which have
definitively taught us about the Blessed Trinity, the two natures of Christ
(human and divine), the union of those natures (hypostatic union), the Filioque
(the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son), and the canon of Scripture
(what books belong in the Bible and what books do not). All of these teachings,
and many, many more, are not explicitly taught in the Bible, yet are generally
believed by all Christians. To learn more about the oral apostolic tradition,
buy a copy of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.
Because 2 Thessalonians 2:15 is so troubling to the sola Scriptura position,
Protestants often argue that the oral tradition Paul is referring to had to
come from the mouths of the apostles. Their argument further goes that, since
all the apostles are deceased, we no longer have to follow oral tradition. This
argument, however, cannot be proven from Scripture (which should be possible if
sola Scriptura were true) and, in fact, is contrary to Scripture. See for
example, 2 Timothy 2:2 where Paul (1st generation) instructs Timothy (2nd
generation) to teach others the faith (3rd generation) who will be able to
teach others also (4th generation). Such an argument is also inconsistent with
the very meaning of tradition (in Greek, "paradosis") which means "to hand on"
from one generation to the next.
Moreover, the Protestant argument is also refuted by the way in which the
Church selected the Bible canon. While the last apostle John died around 100
A.D., the Bible was not finally compiled until 397 A.D. The Church was thus
required to rely upon the oral apostolic tradition during this 300 year period
in order to determine which letters were inspired and which letters were not.
The tradition they depended on, of course, did not come from the mouths of the
apostles (they were deceased), but from their successors. (There is also no
reason to conclude that the Church should listen to the fourth, fifth or sixth
generation of apostolic successors, but not to later successors such as those
of our day).
We should also note that the apostolic traditions Paul is commanding us to
follow in 2 Thessalonians 2:15 are not the same as the Pharisaical traditions
that Jesus condemned in Matthew 15:3 and Mark 7:9. The traditions Jesus
condemned dealt with the Old Testament ceremonial rituals and other acts that
contravened the New Testament Gospel. So there are certain human traditions
that, if contrary to the Gospel, we must reject, and oral apostolic tradition,
as Paul commands, which we must accept.
The only other argument the Protestant can make is that, once the Bible was
compiled, all oral apostolic tradition was committed to the Scriptures. As a
result, the requirement to follow oral tradition ceased. But this they cannot
prove from the Bible. There is nothing in the Scriptures that commands us to
follow oral tradition until the Bible is compiled, and then to follow the Bible
alone (the word "Bible" is not even in the Bible). In fact, Jesus never even
commanded any of His apostles to write anything down. They were only charged to
"preach the Gospel to all creation." Matthew 28:19. Because the Scriptures are
the living word of God which is the same yesterday, today and forever (cf.
Hebrews 13:10), and there is no verse in Scripture that repudiates Paul's
instruction in 2 Thessalonians 2:15, we must also obey the oral tradition of
the Church as Paul commanded, or we are not being faithful to the Scriptures.
IV. 1 Peter 3:21
"Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt
from the body but as an appeal to God for a clear conscience, through the
resurrection of Jesus Christ"
Most Protestant churches teach that baptism is just symbolic and does not
actually save us. Why, then, does Peter say that baptism does indeed save us?
Because baptism, contrary to Protestant teaching, is salvific (effecting
salvation). Through the merits of Christ's resurrection, baptism, the sacrament
of Christian initiation instituted by Christ, washes us clean of original sin,
makes us adopted sons and daughters of God, and brings us to salvation.
Unlike Protestant teaching, baptism is not just a symbolic act of pouring,
sprinkling or immersing one in water (otherwise Peter would not have said that
it saves us). It is not just an appeal to God through a symbolic gesture. This
is why Peter says it is "not as a removal of dirt from the body." Most scholars
say that Peter was referring to circumcision (the ritual of initiation in the
Old Covenant) when he writes about the “removal of dirt from the body.”
Circumcision was a symbolic gesture before God that could never save us. But,
at a minimum, Peter is teaching that baptism does not deal with the exterior,
but the interior life of the person.
Thus, Peter teaches that baptism saves us “for a clear conscience.” This deals
with the interior life. Similarly, the author of Heb. 10:22, in regard to being
washed with the pure water (of baptism), says we are sprinkled “clean from an
evil conscience.” Baptism removes original sin which darkens our consciences.
It purifies the interior life of the person. Baptism is not just an external,
symbolic, ceremonial gesture (otherwise, the sacred writers would not write
about the purification of the conscience, where sin is born).
Thus, through the resurrection of Christ, baptism now actually saves our
spiritual lives, just as Noah's ark (which Peter says baptism "corresponds to")
saved his family's natural lives. In baptism, we are washed clean of original
sin and become adopted sons and daughters of the Father. This is why Paul
writes to Titus, in reference to baptism, that “He saved us by the washing of
regeneration and renewal in the Holy Spirit, which He poured out on us richly
through Jesus Christ, so that we might be justified by His grace and become
heirs of eternal life.” Titus 3:5-7. Paul echoes Peter’s teaching that baptism
saves us by regenerating our interior lives, namely, our souls, which are now
endowed with God’s divine and sanctifying grace. We thus become children of God
and heirs of the kingdom.
Only the Catholic Church teaches that baptism, by virtue of the merits of Christ
and their application to us, is salvific. The Protestant churches, contrary to
1 Peter 3:21 (and Titus 3:5-7; John 3:5; and Heb. 10:22) teach that baptism is
only symbolic. For more on the striking parallels of these Scripture verses,
please visit my link on Baptism.
V. John 20:22-23
"And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to
them, 'Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are
forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained.'"
Protestants believe that Christians should confess their sins privately to God,
and not to a priest. Why, then, does Jesus give the apostles the authority to
forgive and retain sins? Because, unlike the Protestant belief, Jesus believed
that Christians could best grow in holiness by confessing their sins to His
priests and receiving absolution in the sacrament of confession. Confession is
thus the normative way in which God forgives us our sins.
This passage is very powerful and troubling to the Protestant position. First,
we see that Jesus breathes on His apostles in the upper room. The only other
time God breathed on man was when He created him and breathed life into his
body. Genesis 2:7. When God breathes on man, a transformation takes place.
Here, the apostles were transformed into "other Christs," filled with the Holy
Spirit and endowed with Jesus' divine authority to forgive sins. Thus, Matthew
writes that God gave the authority to forgive sins “to men.” Matt. 9:8. We also
note that Jesus makes no distinction between very serious sin (called "mortal
sin") and lesser sins (called "venial sin"). See 1 John 5:16-17. By virtue of
God's mercy, the apostles are able to forgive all sins.
We also note that the apostles were not only given the authority to forgive
sin, but to retain sin as well. What does this mean? This means that the
apostles were given the gift of rendering judgment on the sincerity of the
penitent, and binding the penitent to works of penance in order for him to be
forgiven of his sin. If, in the apostles' judgment, the penitent was not
sincere, or should be required to perform acts of penance in reparation for his
sins, the apostles could retain the sin (withhold forgiveness) until their
conditions were satisfied. While such authority is reserved to God alone,
Christ shared this authority with the apostles.
The power to retain sin is extremely important because it gives priests the
authority, not only to forgive sin, but to remove the temporal punishments due
to sin (the Church calls the removal of temporal punishments due to sin already
forgiven an "indulgence"). Certainly, if a priest can forgive a mortal sin
(which, if unforgiven, would have sent the person to hell), the priest can
certainly remove the temporal punishments due to venial sin. This is part of
the priests' binding authority (retaining sin and imposing penance) and loosing
authority (forgiving sin and removing punishment due to sin).
Of course, Jesus' gift of authority described in John 20:22-23 only makes sense
if the penitent orally confesses the sins to the apostles. The apostles were
not given the gift of mind reading, and, even if they were, forgiveness of sin
would still depend on the sinner's desire to be forgiven (the sinner would
express that desire by confessing his sins to the priest). If oral confession
were not required, the way that Jesus granted the gift to the apostles would
not make any sense.
Finally, for the small group of Protestants who do acknowledge that the
apostles had the authority to forgive and retain sins, they can only disregard
John 20:22-23 by arguing that this authority terminated at their death. The
problem with their argument is that it cannot be proven from Scripture (there
is no place in Scripture that teaches the apostles' binding and loosing
authority terminated at death). Neither can the argument be proven from any
historical record (the Church has been confecting the sacrament of confession
for many centuries).
Moreover, these Protestants fail to provide an adequate explanation of why
Jesus would grant such an incredible gift to the apostolic age, and then remove
the gift from future generations. The answer, of course, is that He didn't
remove it. The gift was preserved through priestly succession by the sacrament
of ordination as Christ intended, which the Scriptures often refer to as "the
laying on of hands." Acts 1:20; 6:6; 13:3; 8:18; 9:17; 1 Timothy 4:14; 5:22; 2
VI. John 6:53-58, 66-67
"So Jesus said to them, 'Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of
the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you; he who eats my
flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last
day. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. He who eats my
flesh and drinks my blood abides in me and I in him. As the living Father sent
me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of
me. This is the bread which came down from heaven, not such as the fathers ate
and died; he who eats this bread will live forever.' After this many of his
disciples drew back and no longer went about with him. Jesus said to the
twelve, 'Will you also go away?'"
Most Protestants believe that the bread and wine offered by the Catholic priest
in the Holy Mass are only symbols of Christ's body and blood. They do not
believe that Christians have to actually eat the flesh and drink the blood of
Christ to have eternal life. They do not believe that Christ's flesh is actual
food, and His blood actual drink. Why, then, does Jesus repeatedly say in these
verses that we must eat His flesh and drink His blood or we have no life in us?
Why does Christ say that His flesh is food indeed, and His blood is drink
indeed, if His flesh and blood really aren't food and drink indeed? This
teaching of Jesus on the Eucharist is the most profound in all of Scripture,
and these verses are very problematic to the Protestant contention that the
bread and wine of the Mass are just symbols.
When John 6 is prayerfully read, we see how Jesus gradually teaches the
faithful about the life-giving bread from heaven that He will give to the world
(through the multiplication of the loaves, the reference to the raining manna
given to the Israelites, and finally to the bread that Jesus will give which is
His flesh). When the Jews question Jesus about how he could possibly give them
His flesh to eat, Jesus becomes more literal in His explanation. As we learned
in the link on The Eucharist, Jesus says several times that we must eat (in
Greek, "phago") His flesh to gain eternal life (which literally means "to
When the Jews further question the strangeness of His teaching, Jesus uses an
even more literal verb (in Greek, "trogo") to describe how we must eat His
flesh to have eternal life (which literally means "to gnaw or crunch"). The
word “trogo” is only used two other times in the New Testament (Matt. 24:38;
John 13:18) and it is always used literally (physically eating). Protestants
are unable to provide a single example of where "trogo" is ever used in a
symbolic sense. To drive His point home, Jesus says that His flesh is real food
indeed, and His blood is real drink indeed (Jesus says nothing about the bread
being a symbol of His body and blood).
What is perhaps most compelling about the foregoing passages is what happens at
the end of Jesus' discourse. We know that the Jews understood Jesus as speaking
literally. This is demonstrated by their question, "How can this man give us
His flesh to eat?" They could not conceive of why consuming Jesus' flesh was
life-giving and how they could possibly do such a thing. We also know that
Jesus responds to their question by being even more literal about eating His
flesh and drinking His blood. But we learn at the end of Jesus' discourse that
many of His followers, because of the difficulty of His teaching, decided to no
longer follow Him - and Jesus let them go. Then He turned to His apostles and
asked them, "Will you also go away?"
Would Jesus, the Incarnate Word of God who became man to save humanity, allow
his followers to leave Him if they misunderstood His teaching? Of course not,
especially when the teaching regarded how they were to obtain eternal life
which was at the heart of Jesus' mission. Jesus always explained the meaning of
His teachings to His disciples. Mark 4:34. Jesus did not say, "Hey, guys, come
back here, you got it all wrong." He didn't do this because they did not have
it all wrong. They understood correctly - we must eat Jesus' flesh and drink
His blood, or we have no life within us. The Protestant who contends that the
Catholic offering of bread and wine in the Mass is just a symbol (and does not
miraculously become the body and blood of Christ through the actions of the
priest acting "in persona Christi") must address John 6:53-58, 66-67 - why
Jesus used the words He did, and why Jesus allowed His followers to leave Him
if they understood Him correctly (which is the only time in Scripture where
Christ allows His disciples to leave Him based upon a doctrinal teaching).
When we meditate upon this mystery with an open mind and heart, we come to
believe and know that the Eucharist is the way the Father gives us His Son in
the eternal covenant of love by the power of the Holy Spirit. The Eucharist is
an extension of the Incarnation. If we can believe in the Incarnation (that God
become a little baby), than believing that God makes Himself substantially
present under the appearance of bread and wine is easy. The Church has thus
taught for 2,000 years that the Eucharist is the source and summit of the
Christian faith - the consummation of the sacrificed Paschal lamb, by which we
are restored to God and share in His divine life. Thus, Saint Paul says, "our
Paschal lamb has been sacrificed; therefore, let us celebrate the feast." 1
VII. 1 Corinthians 11:27
"Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy
manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord."
Although Protestant churches teach that the Eucharist is just a symbol of
Christ's body and blood, Paul in this verse sets forth the Catholic teaching
that Christ is really, truly, and substantially present in the Eucharist. Paul
confirms what Jesus taught in John's Gospel, chapter 6. If we partake of the
Eucharist unworthily, we are guilty of the unthinkable crime of profaning
Christ's body and blood (literally, murdering Christ). This very solemn and
powerful teaching drives home the Catholic understanding of the Eucharist and
leaves little, if any, room for doubt about the Real Presence.
An illustration of the application of this verse may be helpful. Some time ago,
I was debating a Protestant gentleman at work about the Real Presence of Christ
in the Eucharist. I explained to him that in all three synoptic Gospel accounts
of the Last Supper, as well as in Saint Paul's teaching which he received
directly from Christ, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, and said, "This
is my body." In the same manner, he took wine, gave thanks, and said, "This is
my blood." Matthew 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20; and 1 Corinthians
11:21-25. I emphasized that Jesus did not say "This represents my body and
blood," or "This is a symbol of my body and blood" (even though there were many
verbs in Aramaic for “represent”). I further explained to him that God does
not, and cannot, declare something to be without making it so, and challenged
him to find a Scripture verse to prove me wrong. He could not.
Instead, the Protestant took down a picture of his wife which he had pinned up
in his cubicle, gave me the picture, and said, "This is my wife." Then he asked
me, "But it is not really her, is it?" He thought he had me cold.
I first congratulated him on having such a beautiful spouse. I then pretended
to rip up the picture and, after it fell to the ground, pretended to stomp all
over it. I made a bit of a scene. He looked at me with an expression of
surprise and confusion. I then asked him, "Am I now guilty of profaning your
wife's body and blood?"
After quite a pause, he responded, "No." I asked him, "Why not?" His mind was
obviously reeling, but I don't think he knew where I was going. I jumped in to
help him by saying, "I'll tell you why, and it's the point you just made.
Because the picture of your wife is just a symbol of her, and not actually
her." At this point, he agreed, but was still confused. I then added, "Being
guilty of profaning your wife's body and blood by ripping up a picture of her
would be an absolute outrage, because you can't profane a symbol, right?" He
I then drove my point home by leaning in close to him and slowly asking, "Then
why does Saint Paul in 1 Corinthians 11:27 declare us to be guilty of profaning
Christ's body and blood if we receive the Eucharist unworthily? That would be
an absolutely unjust penalty if the Eucharist were just a symbol, wouldn't it?"
After another long pause it was obvious that my Protestant brother was at a
loss for words. All he could do was ask me to give back to him his wife's
picture and promised me he would read the verse in its proper context and get
back to me. He never did.
Anointing of the Sick
VIII. James 5:14-15
"Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church, and let them
pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer
of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has
committed sins, he will be forgiven."
While Protestants usually have some type of rebuttal for most Scriptures that
support Catholic teaching (which can always be disproved), they generally have
little to say about James 5:14-15. Most Protestants tuck this verse away, never
to deal with it again. This is because there is no place to put it in their
Protestant theology. It doesn't fit anywhere.
The passage sets forth the Catholic sacrament of the anointing of the sick
(which used to be called "Extreme Unction.") This sacrament, which is one of
seven sacraments Jesus instituted for His Church, is given to people who are in
danger of death, suffering with grave illness, or facing serious medical
The verse demonstrates several things the Church has taught for 2,000 years.
First, in order to confect the sacrament, one must call for the elders or
priests of the Church. This requires men specially ordained to do the job, and
gets into what we mean by Church (don't forget about Peter, the keys, dynastic
succession, priestly ordination, the power to bind and loose, and the pinnacle
and bulwark of the truth). Secondly, James says the priests' prayer of faith
will save the sick man and the Lord will raise him up. This demonstrates that
the Church's priests act in the person of Christ ("in persona Christi") in
furthering Christ's work of salvation. Yes, Jesus is our only Savior, but He
desires us to participate in His eternal priesthood, and He calls certain men
to participate in a very intimate way by effecting salvation (through the
ministerial priesthood described here). So the priests, through the power of
Christ, save the sick man's soul.
Finally, by virtue of the actions and prayers of the priests, the sick man's
sins are forgiven (this is what actually saves the man's soul). Protestants
have great difficulty with this verse particularly because it demonstrates that
priests have the power and authority to forgive sins (which was given to men by
Christ; see also Matthew 9:8). Unlike what the Bible provides, no where in its
theology or practice does Protestantism provide for priestly forgiveness of
sins or the sacrament of the sick.
IX. Colossians 1:24
"Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh and I complete
what is lacking in Christ's affliction for the sake of his body, that is, the
Christians believe that Jesus' suffering and death were entirely sufficient to
forgive all the sins of the world. Why, then, does Paul say that Christ's
afflictions are lacking something? How can this possibly be? The question can
only be answered by the 2,000 year-old Catholic understanding of how we as
Christians participate in Christ's work of redemption and salvation.
Most Protestant churches leave you pretty unfulfilled when they teach about
suffering. Because in Protestantism all you generally need to do is accept
Jesus as personal Lord and Savior to be saved and nothing more, suffering is
simply viewed as something we must endure as part of the human condition,
without any value or merit for ourselves or others. Because the Catholic Church
believes that each of us, by virtue of our baptism, participates in Christ's
eternal priesthood, she instead teaches that our prayers, works, and even
suffering further Christ's work of redemption. This is the necessary effect of
belonging to the communion of saints. This is also what Saint Paul is writing
about in Colossians 1:24.
In the verse, Paul says he rejoices in his suffering for the sake of others.
Knowing what we know about Paul, we can safely conclude that he would not
rejoice in anything, much less write about it in a theological epistle, unless
it brought about Christ's work of redemption. We also see that Paul's rejoicing
is not for himself, but for the other members of the Church. So Paul's
rejoicing about the value of his suffering in the work of redemption is based
on his understanding that his suffering is helping others (it is not because he
enjoys the pain of suffering). This becomes clearer as Paul explains his
teaching in the context of the Mystical Body of Christ, for, only in this
context can Paul's teaching make sense.
Paul explains that he completes what is lacking in Christ's afflictions. But
Paul does not do this for the sake of Christ Himself, because Christ's
afflictions were sufficient and perfectly efficacious for our redemption. Paul
could add nothing to the power of Christ's sufferings. Instead, Paul explains
that he does this for the sake of the Church (the Mystical Body) of which
Christ is the head. Why? Because God wills us to participate in Christ's
sufferings in order to further the work of His redemption. Thus, in the Church
and for her benefit, Jesus Christ, in a very mysterious way, leaves room to
allow our suffering to be united to His, to accomplish the will of the Father.
It is by virtue of our baptism, in which we become sons in the Son and share in
His priesthood, that our suffering can further Christ's redemptive work. This
is lofty stuff, but it is as true as God's love for us, and it is precisely
because of God's love for us.
How do we, like Saint Paul, complete what is lacking in Christ's sufferings for
the sake of the Church? We offer up our suffering as a sacrifice of praise to
God. Instead of just enduring the suffering, we literally will the suffering
through prayer to bring about Christ's work of redemption. This is what the
Church calls "redemptive suffering." This type of suffering is what Paul is
rejoicing about, and this is why the way we handle suffering is so important.
Such suffering can benefit not only those who suffer, but all the members of
the body. The worst kind of suffering is wasted suffering. Only the Catholic
Church, for 2,000 years, has both taught and lived Saint Paul's teachings on
X. James 2:24
"You see that a man is justified by works and not by faith alone."
In addition to their belief in the Bible alone ("sola Scriptura"), most
Protestants believe that all one has to do is accept Jesus Christ as personal
Lord and Savior in order to be justified by God (justification is the process
by which man, moved by grace, turns toward God and away from sin, and accepts
God’s forgiveness and righteousness). Thus, most Protestants believe that one
is justified and saved by His faith in Christ alone (called "sola Fide" or
Faith alone). But if this is true, then why does James say that a man is
justified by works and not by faith alone?
James says this because we are justified, and ultimately saved, through both
our faith and works, and not just faith alone. In fact, the only place in the
Bible where the phrase "faith alone" appears is in James 2:24 where it says we
are justified by works and NOT by faith alone. So the Bible never teaches
anywhere that we are justified, saved, or anything else, by faith alone. While
on its face the Catholic position seems obvious, the theology of faith and
works in the matter of salvation is actually quite complicated, and has been
one of the main sources of division between Catholicism and Protestantism.
Hence, a couple of points should be made to address the controversy and clarify
First, Catholics ultimately believe that we are saved, not by faith or works,
but by Jesus Christ and Him alone. Jesus Christ's death and Resurrection is the
sole source of our justification (being in a right relationship with God) and
salvation (sharing in God's divine life). But as a result of Christ's death and
resurrection, we are now able to receive God's grace. Grace is God's own divine
life which He infuses into our souls. It is what Adam initially lost for us,
and Christ won back for us. This grace initially causes us to seek God and to
believe in Him (the "faith" part). Non-Catholics generally stop here.
But God desires us to respond to His grace by putting our faith into action
(the "works" part). This is why Jesus always taught about our salvation in the
context of what we actually did during our earthly lives, and not how much
faith we had ("whatever you did to the least of my brothers, you did to Me."
Matthew 25:40,45). When Jesus teaches about His second coming where He will
separate the sheep from the goats, He bases salvation and damnation upon what
we actually did ("works"), whether righteous or evil. Matthew 25:31-46. In
James 2:14-26, James is similarly instructing us to put our faith into action
by performing good works, and not just giving an intellectual assent of faith.
James says such "faith apart from works is dead." James 2:17,26.
So we must do more than accept Jesus as personal Lord and Savior. Even the
demons believe Jesus is Savior, and yet "they tremble." James 2:19. We must
also do good works. Faith is the beginning of a process that leads us toward
justification, but faith alone never obtains the grace of justification. Faith
and works acting together achieve our justification. Saint Paul says it best
when he writes that we need "faith working in love." Galatians 5:6. We are not
justified and saved by faith alone.
Secondly, it is important to distinguish between the "works" James taught about
in James 2:24 and the "works of the law" Saint Paul taught about in Rom.
3:20,28; Gal. 2:16,21; 3:2,5,10; and Eph. 2:8-9. Protestants generally confuse
James' "good works" from Paul's "works of the law" when they attempt to prove
that "works" are irrelevant to justification and salvation. The "works of the
law" Paul taught about in Ephesians 2:8-9 and elsewhere referred to the Mosaic
law and their legal system that made God obligated to reward them for their
works. They would thus “boast” about their works by attributing their works to
themselves. Cf. Rom. 4:2; Eph. 2:9. Saint Paul taught that, with the coming of
Christ, the Mosaic (moral, legal, and ceremonial) law which made God a debtor
to us no longer justified a person. Instead, Paul taught that we are now
justified and saved by grace (not legal obligation) through faith (not works of
law). Eph. 2:5,8. Hence, we no longer “boast” by attributing our works to
ourselves. We attribute them to God who gives everything to us freely by His
Therefore, we are no longer required to fulfill the “works of law,” but to
fulfill the “law of Christ” Gal. 6:2. This is why Paul writes that the “doers
of the law (of Christ)” will be justified. Rom. 2:13. Of course, the “works of
the law” Paul wrote about in Rom. 3:20,28; Gal. 2:16,21; 3:2,5,10 and Eph.
2:8-9 have nothing to do with the “good works” James is teaching in James 2:24
or the “law” Paul is teaching about in Rom. 2:13 (because they are part of the
same Word of God which can never contradict itself).
In summary, based on the Scriptures, the Church has taught for 2,000 years that
we are justified and saved by the grace and mercy of Christ through both faith
and works, and not faith alone. We are no longer in a legal system of debt
where God owes us (creditor/debtor). We are now in a system of grace where God
rewards our works when done with faith in Christ (Father/child). This also
means that we must continue to exercise our faith and works to the end of our
lives in order to be saved. This is why Jesus told us to "endure to the end" to
be saved. Matthew 10:22; 24:13; Mark 13:13. This is also why Saint Paul warned
us that we could even lose our salvation if we did not persevere. cf. Romans
11:20-23; 1 Corinthians 9:27. This Catholic belief contradicts the novel
Protestant notion of "once saved, always saved."